National tests, taken at the end of key stage 2 (KS2), give a snapshot of a pupil's attainment in the core subjects. At the end of KS2, pupils are tested in reading, mathematics and English grammar, punctuation and spelling. There are also sample tests in science which schools are required to participate in if selected. Writing results are provided via teacher assessment at the end of KS2. Pupils are expected to reach Level 4 in all subjects.